Right Nutrition

Right Nutrition for the child

  • To build muscle mass of the child we must not only focus on feeding a lot of food (which will increase on fat content of the body), but make sure that the kid also plays, dance and exercise a lot. Encourage them to walk/run/cycle to school.
  • We have more of rice and wheat in the food. We must encourage the child to take more of dals (legumes) and vegetables
  • As per Nutrition monitoring bureau majority of kids are malnourished. Weak kids get 25% less proteins, 25% less carbohydrates or energy and 90% less oil, needed to make hormones, vitamin D, cell wall of all cells etc.
  • Increase oil seed intake such as soya beans – which can be roasted and made into flour and the flour can be added to every feed, also add oil to feeds.
  • WHO says that in most of the developing countries like India people are deficient in 5 micro nutrients – iron, folic acid, B12, vitamin D and Iodine. Iodine is now taken care of in our country as we have started adding it to salt.
  • Increase your intake of other nutrients. Iron can be taken care of by cooking in iron vessels, folic acid by eating lot of leafy vegetables and Vitamin D by right exposure to sun light.
  • Milk has some B12, curd has more of it.

Feeding Guide

 Breast Feeding

  • Give mother’s milk to every baby immediately after birth
  • Every mother should get 6 months leave for child birth and breastfeeding
  • Sunlight is a good source of vitamin D which helps in building immune system. Hece, exposure to sunlight for a good amount of time is recommended.
  • On 10th days of life, baby’s weight must be nearly same as birth weight. If it is very less than that, baby may not be getting enough milk. It is an emergency, meet doctor and discuss.
  • “Breast feeding is not a choice it’s a responsibility”
  • Breastfeeding is helpful in preventing various illnesses like diarrhea, malnutrition, anemia, pneumonia, dental caries. In the long term, breast fed babies have less chances of developing allergies, obesity and have more IQ.
  • Breast feeding should be started within 1 hour of birth. Milk in initial 3 days is very beneficial and also works as immunization, as it is high in immunoglobulin content.
  • No pre lacteal/paralacteal feeds, no water for initial 6 months. No bottle/no pacifiers. 

Ways to increase breast milk in mother:

  • Take 4 meals apart from breakfast
  • Eat all type of food that you like.
  • Take total rest for 6 months
  • Have happy mind
  • You must remember caring is more important than worrying

Breast milk – the best milk for the child

  • Breast milk best for babies – 6 months exclusively then till 2 years with complementary food
  • Multiple benefits of breastfeeding
  • Composition of breast milk tailored for human babies; preterm milk for preemies
  • Breast milk production (prolactin reflex) and breast milk let-down (oxytocin reflex) require effective and frequent suckling
  • Breast feeding technique and skills should be taught to mother; correct positioning endures good latching
  • Feed the baby when it demands for the mother’s milk
  • Nipple and breast problems should be prevented and managed timely
  • Low milk transfer may be real or perceived: ascertain and manage
  • All mothers must know manual expression
  • Artificial feeding is disadvantageous
  • Breast milk is 1st choice milk for NICU babies 

Tips for working mothers for breast milk storage:

  • Room Temperature: Freshly expressed breast milk can be kept at room temperature for up to 6 hours. If you can’t use the milk quickly or the room is especially warm, transfer the milk to an insulated cooler, refrigerator or freezer.
  • Insulated cooler: Freshly expressed breast milk can be stored in an insulated cooler with ice packs for up to 1 day. Use the milk or transfer the containers to the refrigerator or freezer.
  • Refrigerator: Freshly expressed breast milk can be stored in the back of the refrigerator (not at the door) for up to 5 to 8 days.
  • Always store milk in a steel container only. Do not use bottle for storing milk.
  • Stored milk should be fed to the baby using a spoon.
  • Avoid feeding babies from a bottle as this could lead to serious illness. 

Complementary Feeding

Up to 6 months:

  • Breast feed as often as the baby wants, day and night, at least 8 times in 24 hours
  • Do not give any other foods or fluids not even water or gripe water or honey.
  • Oral vaccines and medicines can be given. 

Remember:

  • Continue breastfeeding even during baby’s illness 

6 to 12 months:

  • Breast feed as often as the baby wants.
  • Time to introduce solids initially as a thick paste and gradually shifting to semi-solid items. . Give it when baby is hungry. Baby will refuse this if it is given after a milk feed
  • Avoid packaged food, salt, juices,junk food items.
  • Prefer home cooked food like
    -  Mashed rice/ bread mixed in lightly sweetened undiluted toned milk.
    -  Mashed roti/rice/bread mixed in thick dal with added ghee/oil or khichri with added oil/ghee. Add cooked vegetables also in the servings
    -  Sevian/dalia/halwa/ kheer prepared in milk or any cereal porridge cooked in milk
    -  Mashed boiled/fried potatoes.
  • Encourage baby to chew on long fingers of carrots/cucumber, roll of cha ppati or toast.this should be supervised.
  • Give at least 1 katori serving at a time.
  • 3 times per day if breast fed baby and 4-5 times per day if not breast fed.
  • This is the time to wean off bottle feeding. Start giving milk by cup and spoon or using a clean sipper.
  • If on formula feeds, good idea to gradually switch to undiluted single toned milk, about 3 -4 milk feeds, not more than 500-600ml ml a day
  • Start giving water now by cup and spoon or by sipper

Remember:

  • Keep the child in your lap and feed with your own hands. Can make baby sit in a high chair once able to sit without support i.e. by 9months
  • Wash your own and child’s hands with soap and water every time before feeding 

12 months to 2 years

  • Breast feed as often as the child wants
  • Offer food from the family pot. Encourage child to self feed. From his own plate, katori and spoon.
  • Plain milk should not be more than 250ml a day. If you continue giving large quantities of milk, baby will not learn to chew/eat solid food as his stomach will fill up with milk.
  • Avoid packaged food, salt, juices,junk food items.
  • Prefer home cooked food like
    -  Mashed roti/rice/bread mixed in thick dal with added ghee/oil or khichri with added oil/ghee. Add cooked vegetables also in the servings
    -  Mashed roti/rice/ bread/biscuit mixed in sweetened undiluted milk
    -  Sevian/dalia/ halwa/ kheer prepared in milk or any cereal porridge
    -  cooked in milk
    -  Mashed boiled/fried potatoes.
  • Give at least 1½ katori serving at a time
  • Also give nutritious food between meals, such as: banana/ cheeko/mango/papaya as snacks , 3 times per day
  • Encourage baby to chew on long fingers of carrots/cucumber, roll of chappati or toast .this should be supervised.

Remember:

  • Encourage the child to finish the serving, but don’t force feed if baby pushes away the bowl of food. All children have their own sizes of stomach and eat different amounts of food.
  • Please do not compare children as each is unique.
  • Wash your child’s hands with soap and water every time before feeding 

2 years and older

  • Give home cooked food items at least 3 meals each day. Encourage child to feed himself. From his own plate, Katori and spoon. He should join family for meals.
  • Also twice daily, give nutritious food between meals, such as: banana/ cheeko/mango/ papaya as snack.

Remember:

  • Avoid junk and packaged food.
  • Teach child to drink plenty of water by glass about a litre a day.
  • Teach your child to wash his hands with soap and water every time before feeding